• Waste water treatment plants
  • Sumps
  • Grease traps
  • Plastic tanks
  • Septic tanks
  • Gauging shafts
  • Ground filters
  • Water clarifiers
  • Stripping towers
  • Horizontal aerating unit
  • Venting stations
  • Oil separator
  • Biological filters
  • Domestic water treatment plants
  • And other products based on customer’s requirements

Biological filters

The company Vodní zdroje EKOMONITOR Ltd. provides a low-cost and effective solution for removal of odours and VOC's (volatile organic compounds) from effluent gases. The solution includes the design, installation and operation of biofilters.
Biofilters are bioreactors filled with a porous medium. Medium particles are surrounded by a wet layer of microorganisms which are able to break down contaminants in waste air. While the air passes the bed of filter material, the pollutants are absorbed in the layer of microorganisms and converted to harmless products (mainly carbon dioxide and water). The key process during which contaminants are being destroyed by microorganisms is called biodegradation.
Before entering the biofilter bed the air may require preconditioning: humidification, particulate removal and temperature control. The biofilter bed is generally 1 to 1,5 m in depth and may be designed as an open bed system (exposed to the atmosphere at the top surface) or an enclosed biofilter. The latter design enables a better control of operational parameters and, therefore, higher degree of reliability. Both open and enclosed biofilters can also be installed as multiple-level beds which reduce space requirements. If organic media are used as filter materials they need to be replaced every 3 - 5 years because of their microbial deterioration and compaction.
Biofiltration may be used e.g. in the area of wastewater treatment, soil vapour extraction, composting, petroleum refining, chemical processing, food production, in printing and painting shops or in animal rendering plants. The advantages of biofiltration over the other techniques are: low investment and operating costs, operation at ambient temperature and pressure and the fact that contaminants are not transferred to another phase but decomposed into harmless products.
Prior to design of a biofiltration system preliminary assessment of the particular site has to be performed. The site conditions that should be defined are: waste gas composition including concentration of all contaminants, process flow rate, relative humidity, temperature, pressure and particulate concentration (e.g. oils, fats). If some of this information is not known preliminary testing has to be carried out (the values are measured over an extended period of time to define possible periodic variations). Further, to be able to choose the optimum design option additional characteristics should be clearly stated: regulatory removal efficiency required, space available to install biofiltration system, operational control desired, and the other specific needs of a customer if any. In some cases bench-scale and pilot-scale testing may be advisable.

Water treatment systems

Water treatment plants of the Vodní zdroje Ekomonitor spol. s r.o. are designed for the production of potable water from common water resources, i.e. from surface and/or ground water. We provide comprehensive services to our customers from initial raw water analyses to elaborating the technological and constructional design and final installation of the water treatment system.

Water sanitation is the key stage of the treatment. Disinfectant is injected into the water in amounts that will reliably kill bakteria but will not have any adverse effect on the taste and odour of the water. To ensure the desired result, there has to be a constant level of the disinfectant and so it is dosed by an electronically operated dosing pump. You can see different types of dosing pumps in the picture.

Softening water, denitration and demineralization is achieved by running water through ion-exchange filters. If the water is hard due to high calcium and magnesium content, mildly acidic cation exchange resin (katex) is used as filter medium, while when nitrates are present, lightly base anion exchange resin is used for filtration. In both instances, the medium in the ion-exchange filters is regenerated by backwashing with aqueous solution of cooking salt.

Water to be used in boilers and power industry. For technology reasons only water with low mineral content may be used in heat-transfer circuits of power systems. If a pair of filters, connected in series, is used for treating the water in which cation and anion exchange is combined, practically all minerals will be removed from the water at the outlet, all dissolved substances will be removed and the water will be suitable for this type of usage. In this case, too, the medium in the ion-exchange unit is regenerated by washing with aqueous solution of cooking salt.

Iron and manganese removal is often required when treating ground water. The equipment is installed into existing piping, between the source and the point of consumption. Iron and manganese precipitate in the device and then are trapped in a filter. The equipment operates in an automatic mode, controlled by a programmer, and filter washing is usually preset for night operation.

Clarification is a basic method of turning surface water into potable water. Doses of coagulant solutions, flocculation aid and sodium carbonate are injected into raw surface water. This cause the formation of clouds of flocculated hydrate of alumina or iron which attract and accumulate all impurities contained in the raw water. Water is clarified under pressure, and in this case we are talking of coagulation filtration, or in open sedimentation tanks. The flocculent is retained by filters and the cleaned water passes on to the point of consumption. Filters are regenerated by backwashing with water. Backwash water is then concentrated in mudsetting pits. The pictures below show both pressure and open (atmospheric) units used for clarification.

Water deacidification usually means the removal of carbon oxide. This is done in two ways. If water has a low mineral content, lacking calcium and magnesium, it is filtered through granulated marble or dolomite. If the raw water contains sufficient amounts of calcium and magnesium, acid is removed through intensive aeration in special equipment, see appropriate catalogue sheet.

Water improvement is a process in which substances are removed that have an adverse effect (even in trace amounts) on the sensory characteristics of water, ie. taste and odour, and which are usually hard to detect analytically. The most common method is filtration over high-quality activated carbon, the surface of which absorbs sensorially harmful substances and, on top of that, also substances undesirable in drinking water, such as heavy metals or pesticides.
Reverse osmosis is a method of water treatment in which water is filtered over membranes. The size of membrane pores allows passage of molecules of identical size as those of water. The product of reverse osmosis is minerál free water, containing practically no salt or other substances, and on top of that there is a concentrated aqueous solution of substances removed from the water. Mineral-free water can be used in laboratories, in medicine, in the manufacture of microelectronics, etc. Compared to other methods, the running costs of reverse osmosis in drinking water production are relatively high, nevertheless, it is the only solution when water composition is not typical. It is not possible to consume water without minerals and it has to be enriched with biogenous elements for drinking.